Possibilities and Types of Internet Connection

Internet is part of the day to day of many people. It is a source of research for some, or leisure and work for others. The great computer network expands at great speed, and it is impossible to try to stop it. Such is the utility that is able to lend us, that since the decade of the 60, date of its creation, until today, have developed various ways to connect to it through multiple means, trying to improve their performance and facilitate their access to bring it closer to the general public.

However,  this diversity of Internet access methods also entails that many forms of access to the network of networks still coexist, even though some have been forgotten and disused because they have been exceeded in terms of speed and quality of service.  This obviously lends itself to confusion, and that is why in this article we will find everything necessary to understand what are the possibilities of Internet connection, its advantages, disadvantages and how they work.

Internet Connection by Telephone Line

Also called dial-up, it ‘s the oldest Internet connection method and it was the only one used when the network of networks took its first steps. The access is made by the user through a modem and a conventional telephone line. This type of connection is less and less used since the data transmission capacity does not exceed 56 kbps, which makes navigation very slow. With the popularization of broadband access services and their very accessible prices, dial-up access is practically extinct.

In addition to the low speed, the connection by telephone line is not stable and keeps the telephone line busy when connected to the internet. In other words, you surf the Internet or talk on the phone. Regardless of the time when the internet is accessed, the expenses of the telephone bill can increase considerably.

Types of Internet connection

On the other hand, it is the simplest Internet connection. All you need is an available telephone line, a PC with a modem and an Internet access provider, either free or paid. In the case of paid access, they offer various plans with unlimited browsing hours and access to limited or unlimited data. It is necessary to remember that the quality and stability of the free access providers may be lower than the paid providers.

Internet connection by xDSL

The xDSL connection is provided through the conventional telephone network, but it differs from dial-up access. A modem converts the information into an electrical signal that transforms it into a frequency different to that used for the voice, in this way a signal does not interfere with the use of the telephone. This means that you can surf the internet and use the phone at the same time. However, it is good to remember that it is necessary that the PC has an Ethernet network board.

The xDSL service works by hiring an access provider, as does dial-up, and it is possible to access services at different speeds. For example, in the ADSL, the speed varies from 256 kbps to 8 Mbps; in the ADSL2 or ADSL2 + it goes from 256 kbps up to 24 Mbps; in the VDSL it can reach a speed of 52 Mbps and in the VDSL2 up to 100 Mbps.

The xDLS has the disadvantage that being a shared service,  navigation can be slower during peak hours, when many users use the Internet simultaneously. ADSL, ADSL2, ADSL2 +, SDSL, IDSL, HDSL, SHDSL, VDSL and VDSL2 belong to this family of services , with ADSL being the most used worldwide.

What is ADSL?

The ADSL, or “Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line”, is a type of technology that, using a common telephone line, allows the user to digitally transfer data at high speed. The reason for this technology to be “asymmetric” is in the fact that there is a significant difference between the download (download) and upload (upload) rates.

Why is it possible to talk on the phone with ADSL while browsing?

Because ADSL technology divides the telephone line into three digital channels, being one for voice, another for download and the last for upload.

What are the differences between ADSL and ADSL2 / 2 +?

Basically, the most notable difference is speed and technology. While ADSL can reach download levels of 8 Mbps (megabytes per second), ADSL 2/2 + reaches up to 24 Mbps, however, both have the same maximum shipping limit: 1 Mbps.

Why is the upload speed of both of them the same?

The team that developed the ADSL2 / 2 + decided to only increase the download rate (without altering the upload rate), because according to the typical traffic profile of ADSL users, 1 Mbps would be sufficient for their needs.

Internet connection by radio (Wireless connections)

Internet access by radio is a way to extend a broadband connection to some place where the service is not available. That point can be from a small restricted area, such as an office, to a complete city. For that, it is necessary to configure a network without cables. Wi-fi and Wi-Max are included in this modality.

One of the advantages of the radio connection is the possibility of distributing the access and guarantee of mobility to the users. The basic infrastructure requires a point of delivery of Internet service, which can be a cable, xDSL or satellite access, a modem compatible with the service, an Access Point and computers with a receiver or wireless network adapter to capture the signal.

By sharing a high capacity connection, users can divide the expenses, at the same time, that the service guarantees them a permanent Internet connection and low cost of installation and maintenance. However, simultaneous use for downloads may impair access.

Internet connection by cable television

The cable connection is increasingly popular and uses the same infrastructure as the contracted cable service, which facilitates installation. Many cable television services offer Internet access at different speeds in the package. Only one cable transfers television service and internet data. A device called a splitter separates the cable signal from the web data, and a cable connected to a modem allows access to the internet.

One of the advantages of this type of connection is that it is enough to connect the modem cable to the computer to have a connection, without the need to dial or activate a service. For all this to work, it is necessary to have an Ethernet board installed. This type of access is only possible in regions where there are paid cable television services.

This type of access provides different types of speeds. The speed of navigation, and the limit of downloads and data upload, depend on the package that is contracted.  In addition, the speed is not affected by the number of users or schedules in which the service is used. Unlike xDSL access, the user will always have the same Internet access speed, at any time.

Internet connection by Satellite

Within the framework of a large number of options that can be found to get a speed Internet connection and with certain security conditions, one of the possible alternatives is the technology called “satellite Internet”. Perhaps it is not the most economical proposal, but it can undoubtedly be very valuable at times, especially in rural areas.

Thus, in those sectors of the country in which broadband is conspicuous by its absence, whether through ADSL technology, cellular telephony or cable, one of the remaining alternatives is the satellite connection to the network. Obviously, the technological resources employed are not at all simple and require certain specialized tools that make the service more expensive.

One of the advantages of the satellite Internet connection is that the access does not depend on the location. In this way you will have access to the internet anywhere the coverage comes. However, the more remote the place where we are, the more powerful the signal will be.

However, in order to access the satellite Internet service, we will need specific equipment that usually has a very high cost. It is necessary to acquire an antenna capable of capturing the satellite signal and transmit it to the computer that has an internal or external receiver modem . In some cases, the antenna is supplied by the service provider itself. In some cases, speeds of up to 30 Mb can be achieved.

To be able to connect via satellite Internet, an artificial satellite is needed as a means of communication. This system can provide a service of similar quality to which any of the other broadband technologies known to date.

The artificial satellite works to connect to the Internet in a manner very similar to the way in which digital television transmissions are made, since the standard used is the same. In both cases the DVB, or Digital Video Broadcasting protocol is used .

Technology to be used for satellite Internet access

Anyone who wants to enjoy a satellite Internet connection must acquire certain technological tools: a satellite dish, a decoder and a satellite modem. With these three elements, you will be able to connect to the network through the services of any satellite Internet provider.

How does the connection mechanism work in these cases? In principle, the satellite dish captures the satellite signal, which is then conducted to the decoder and, finally, transferred to the modem through a cable. Once the modem has a signal, the computer connected to it can join the network.

Regarding the advantages that can be highlighted of this modality, besides the possibility of reaching geographical points to which other technologies do not access, it is worth mentioning that the satellite connection can incorporate mobility, through a simple mobile antenna that provides a connection in any time and place.

Also, satellite Internet connections usually offer speeds and bandwidths that exceed ADSL services, for example, although of course at higher rates. In addition, to these more onerous quotas the expense of buying the necessary technical elements, such as the satellite dish, the decoder and the satellite modem, must be added. At the same time, it is very likely that the installation must be carried out through a technical service, due to the characteristics and complexity of it.

PLC: Internet through the electrical network

Undoubtedly, PLC technology (Power Line Communications) is one of the most interesting forms of connection mentioned in this post, since it takes advantage of power lines to transmit data at high speed.

This type of technology allows us to access an Internet connection from the house plugs.  Although it does not sound very logical according to what we are used to, such as connections by telephone line, wireless, satellite and others, the lines of access to the network through electric power are already a reality in many countries.

Power Line Communication (PLC)  allows access to the Internet and  create internal networks to share data between different devices,  taking advantage of each electrical appliance of the home as a point of access to the web for any device. It is an excellent alternative for places with limited Wi-Fi connectivity.

Currently it is one of the alternative connection systems most used by users around the world, since among many of the benefits it offers, is the possibility of using the electrical wiring of any house to exchange data between the nodes of a local network, with the convenience of not having to invest in the necessary cable to mount it, something that many homes and small businesses are grateful for.

This type of connection works with adapters, which are placed in the plugs and take the Internet signal. It does not matter that there are walls that interfere with the signal, only electrical appliances are needed. In this way, wireless networks are created in the home,  which, although they do not reach Wi-Fi speed, also have other advantages.

For example, to make a network connection using Ethernet cables the system would be much more complex and less practical. The installation of a PLC network, moreover, is very simple. However, its performance depends on the state of the household electrical installation.

Points to improve in PLC technology

Also, since the PLC sometimes uses the same frequency used by radio amateurs, interference may occur. Another drawback that has made this technology even more difficult today is the interference caused by appliances that consume more energy, such as microwaves or washing machines.

As for the connection speed,  PLC networks can theoretically reach a speed of more than 100 megabits per second. However, everything depends on the factors mentioned above. As with all relatively new technology, this type of connection is in a phase of development and improvement.

Thus, a group of companies called  OPERA (“Open PLC European Research Alliance”)  is currently facing a second phase of the PLC,  with the aim of having a connection technology via electricity that does not produce radio interference and reaches a Speed of up to 200 megabits per second.

Meanwhile, the PLC occupies a minimum strip of global connections, mainly due to the deficiencies that it still presents and the high cost it still entails. However, the practicality and simplicity of PLC use technology allow us to think that if technologically it achieves a higher quality it is likely that in a short time it could become a commercially viable option.

Mobile connections through telephony: 3G and 4G connections

The connection to the internet through cell phones is getting better. The arrival of 3G technology provided broadband to cell phones and granted a navigation speed with considerable acceleration. However, the maximum expression, at least until today, is the appearance in the market of the 4G standard, which allows receiving and sending data at speeds previously impossible to reach, which gives us the possibility to watch videos in HD quality and listen to music directly from the cloud, among others.

Mobility is a great advantage of services of this type. In the case of GSM networks, the transfer speed can reach 800 kbps. In the case of CDMA networks, the transfer can reach a speed of up to 2 Mbps .

These numbers are widely surpassed when our phone is compatible with 3G or 4G, which can greatly exceed these figures, reaching in the case of 3G up to 2 Mbps, and in the case of 4G up to 200 Mbps.

4G era

4G technology is based on IP. Your service will be of high quality and high security, offering your consumers services of any kind, at any time and in any place.

The 4G concept goes beyond a cell phone. The new technologies of mobile broadband networks will allow access to data in devices that operate with IP. The two most explored technologies are: WiMAX and LTE.

What is 4G?

Basically, 4G technology is the logical evolution of the previous mobile wireless connection technologies, and that in this instance can reach minimum transmission speeds of 100 Megabits per second (Mbps), represented by the communication of two mobiles at two points different communicating, or by a mobile and a high speed server, always maintaining high QoS standards.

The greatest benefits of 4G

The advantages of 4G with respect to the previous Internet connection technologies are multiple, but the most important for the user are:

  • Convergence of a wide variety of services, previously accessible only with fixed broadband
  • Costs reduction
  • Widening the use of broadband in society

4G was developed to offer services based on mobile broadband such as Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), video chat, mobile TV, HDTV content, Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) and basic services such as voice and data, all at a high speed and quality.

Keys to Get Good Outdoor WiFi

Outdoor events such as concerts and multitudinous shows are filled with mobile devices that exchange data and require a superior connection. Summer festivals, outdoor concerts, beach sponsored parties. The summer comes with an endless number of outdoor events that welcome numerous people willing to share their photos, comments and online messaging and without waiting for a connection failure during the process. For this reason, outdoor shows have been, for some years now, increasingly popular events that have required a higher Wi-Fi connection than usual to support a large number of data exchanged between numerous devices of attendees and spectators.

Keys for Good Outdoor WiFi

Possible failures in the connection such as network instability, outages or interruptions in service can affect the success of events. Outdoor shows are tested using the Wi-Fi connection they offer their viewers and, in many cases, their reputation and the guarantee of their success and popularity will depend on the quality of the service they offer. The expectations of its assistants are increasing and the generation of spectators who flock to summer festivals, music concerts, demand a higher quality every year. In fact, according to a recent Adglow study, 89% of the population uses the smartphone as a device from which they connect to the Internet during the summer.

Good Outdoor WiFi

Specifically, the use of social networks and the amount of data that is transmitted through networks can offer a more solid connection in an outdoor environment that provides the necessary stability and without failures that the viewer requires. HPE Aruba has met the three key requirements to ensure the best possible connection in outdoor spaces:

  1. Guarantee security during connection: Security is one of the key elements when it comes to providing an optimal experience for the viewers. Although a priori it is not essential for the user, security is what will create an experience that offers the necessary tranquility for users of devices when exchanging files or accessing public networks without the need to take risks. For example, in sporting events when a game with image rights sold to a TV network is played, the technology must prevent the transit of images, photos, audio, precisely to protect the agreement between the stadium, the teams and third parties, but for example if a concert is held in the same stadium, this technology is ideal for managing the air and business derived from the engagement solutions.
  2. Robustness of the network: the robust network will be responsible for not causing failure or loss of connection at any given time. In this type of events, there are peaks of network activity in which all the devices are sending an image or instant messaging videos at the same time, which results in some connection failures.
  3. Data transmission capacity: The data transmission capacity has to do with the power of the equipment. Using special equipment for outdoors that is resistant to inclement weather such as rain, or high or low temperatures is essential to ensure an optimal connection.

Jose Tormo, regional director of Iberia of HPE Aruba , has affirmed that: “outdoor events such as concerts and multitudinous shows have filled the Iberian Peninsula with mobile devices that exchange data and that require a connection superior to that achieved outdoors with low-end equipment. Users do not imagine sports events in which they can not share images, voice and text messaging or upload content to social networks without the power of networks that they require and that they enjoy at home or in companies. In external environments and in the past it was not achieved consistently or solidly. Teams can not allow failures that tarnish the reputation of an outdoor event.”

WDS : Use it to Extend WiFi Coverage at Home

Surely many have seen it in the web menu of your router, but they do not know what the function is. As we are used to doing, we will take you out of doubt. We will explain everything related to the WDS function and how you can expand the Wi-Fi coverage in your home with this function. Yes, with this function you can put an end to one of the problems that affect many users, since the installed routers, in most of the cases, do not have a good performance in terms of the wireless interface.

WDS – Wireless Distribution System

WDS ( Wireless Distribution System ) we could say that it is a way to connect two devices, without going into technical details for the moment. In this case, routers or access points. This allows us to carry out two mutually exclusive actions:

  • Expand the coverage of an SSID issued by a router
  • Connect two devices to interconnect different subnets.

Surely the first option is the one that most interests the users. The second not so much, since, the wireless interface is reserved in its entirety for the link between the devices. That is, no wireless client can connect.

Going into a little more technical details. The two options mentioned above are known as:

  • WDS or Wireless Repeater
  • WDS-AP

It is convenient not to confuse with WPS. It is true that the similarity is enough, but the purpose is not. This allows the management of the connections to a wireless network in a simple way, avoiding resorting to the keys that in many occasions were long and difficult to remember.

Positive and Negative Aspects of WDS

Like everything, it is necessary to talk about the good and the shortcomings.

The main advantage is related to the treatment of the packages. To be precise, the original MAC address of the packets is maintained.

The other advantage is that it allows, in a relatively simple way, to extend the Wi-Fi coverage of our home.

However, the disadvantages are important, and you have to take them into account.

To operate the WDS in the home, we need the two devices to be compatible. But this does not guarantee the correct operation unless they are equipment of the same manufacturer. What we want to say is that we do not have an IEEE standard. This means that interoperability between equipment is not guaranteed. Hence, problems may appear, or the pairing simply does not work.

The other disadvantage is that the wireless performance is reduced by half with each jump. What we mean is that, if we connect three routers / APs using WDS, the loss of performance of the third with respect to the first will be 50%.

Operating modes of the devices

When a device has the WDS option, it can work in three different ways:

  • As an access point for clients to connect.
  • As a “bridge”, 100% dedicated to this function and not available for other devices to connect.
  • A dual operation, offering a client access point and a bridge to connect another device.

The purpose of the last point is simply to create a wireless network in which the routers / APs connect to each other wirelessly, allowing the connection of clients through the wireless interface or network ports.

Where can I find this option on my router / AP

In this case, we can only make an approximation of where this function is. Each router / AP has a different configuration menu, and it is complicated to match them all.

In our case, in the router Observe facilitated by the operator Movistar, we can find this option in the Advanced option of the menu, which can be selected at the top. It will be in the Wireless section where you place this option.

As a general rule, this option can be found in the section related to the Wi-Fi options of the router / AP.

Set up two computers using WDS to extend Wi-Fi home coverage

Before detailing the process, a series of considerations should be taken into account.

The first and we could consider basic, is that the devices must be compatible with WDS. That is, they must have this option on the web menu. Otherwise, the configuration cannot be performed.

Another aspect to keep in mind is that the routers / APs must be configured on the same channel. This is not an obligation, it can be configured and operated more or less correctly in different channels.

If the equipment to be used is very old, it is not advisable to use WPA security, having to comply with WEP or even MAC filtering.

Once we have taken these into account, we can start with the configuration of both devices.

Depends on what type of security we choose, the process will vary. For example, in the case of the previous capture we have made of the observer, we have to indicate the MAC of the other device that will be used to repeat the signal. Meanwhile, in which we want to connect, we must offer the MAC address of the router or AP to which we are going to connect and the wireless security. That is, the WEP or WPA password that the SSID has.

NOTE: To avoid problems accessing the equipment, we must modify the address of one of them, since, in most cases, it will be It is also convenient to deactivate the DHCP server in which you are going to connect to the other, leaving this task to which we could consider router or main AP.

Make WiFi more Powerful and Faster

Having a bad or slow Wi-Fi signal can be exasperating. When we hire an Internet plan with Wi-Fi for our home or office, not only the speed of the same is important, but other factors that we usually do not take into account and that, in many cases, may be the cause of the problem with your signal

For a Fast and Powerful Signal

Yes, we can not deny that the speed of your Wi-Fi is important, especially if you consume streaming video platforms in 4K, play online or download large files. However, this is not the only factor that we must take into account.

Surely you have ever noticed how the bars of the Wi-Fi icon appear full on the screen of your devices and, even then, the signal you receive is still poor. This is because the bars indicate the state of the network, but not how it is working.

Check the Router

The first indication that something is wrong with your WiFi is the light signals that are in this device: make sure they are lit and that they are green. If one is off or red, it could mean that this is precisely the main cause of the problem.

As a second step, you should locate the router in an area that allows the waves of the wireless signal to propagate effectively through your home or office. Try to place it in high areas and free of physical obstacles. It is also recommended that you place the router away from other electronic devices, in particular those that emit electromagnetic waves (such as microwaves or some telephones). Wooden furniture or doors and related materials are no major obstacle to the propagation of your Wi-Fi waves, so do not break your head trying to position your router in impossible places.

Walls and blocking of signals

The walls (especially if they are very thick or have some kind of metal), can also become an obstacle to overcome. A good option is to adapt network extenders, an action that is neither expensive nor complicated (you only have to connect them to an electrical outlet). With them, the range of wireless waves will most effectively reach your devices.

Nowadays, more and more electronic devices are connected to the Internet. The more devices are working through your network, the greater the congestion that occurs in it and the worse the result in terms of the power of your Internet connection. With the following app WiFi Analyzer, you can determine the intensity of the connections and the channels in which the waves travel, which will be very useful when evaluating and repairing the problems in your signal.

Speed Meters and their values

Our last advice would be to measure the speed and know how to interpret the numbers that appear. With Speedtest you can measure the speed of your Internet, either in its web version or in its Android app. In these evaluations, you will find three variables: ping, loading speed and download speed.

The ping is the time it takes your connection to react when your device makes a request on the Internet, so a lower value indicates better performance. The loading speed is the time necessary for the data of your device to upload to the server, and the download speed is the opposite, that is, the time it takes for the server data to go down to your devices. The last two values are measured in Mbps, and the higher they are, the better.

And well, it is good to recommend that you have a Wi-Fi password safe enough so that neighbors can not catch it. What do you think of these tips? Are you satisfied with your internet speed?

WiFi 6 – Why is it Going to Improve your WiFi Home Network

the Wi-Fi Alliance is expected to ratify the new 802.11ax or Wifi 6 standard that is now in the development phase. In addition to the change in the way we refer to devices and networks compatible with this new standard, Wifi 6 brings much interesting news in increasingly common situations where we have many devices that want to access the Internet at the same time.

We tell you what their technical characteristics, improvements and advantages of WiFi 6 are.

Why Wifi 6 and not WiFi 802.11ax?

Although it will be a while before we get used to it, the Wi-Fi Alliance introduced a new denomination for the devices and networks compatible with each standard last October. The objective is clear: to facilitate the identification and differentiation between WiFi networks in a direct and unique way in the consumer market.

In this way, products and networks that are capable of operating under the 802.11ax standard will actually do so under WiFi 6. The previous standards, such as the current 802.11ac, collect other names, in the latter case Wifi 5. This will happen from now on with the standards of the Wi-Fi Alliance, although they will only receive simple designations type Wifi 6 the standards destined to the market of consumption.

The new WiFi 6 standard is compatible with previous protocols, so if you buy one of the new WiFi 6 or 802.11 ax routers, your current equipment can connect to it. However, in order to obtain the advantages and advances of the new WiFi 6, we need both the transmitter and the receiver to be compatible with WiFi 6.

More reach and coverage even in saturated spaces

As we see in the following table, WiFi 6 does not improve much the speed of data of original link that we have in the standard 802.11 ac. A stream goes from 433 Mbps in WiFi 5 to 600 Mbps in Wifi 6. Neither in the theoretical maximum data rate that we can achieve using 8 streams (160 MHz), there is a very large quantitative leap since WiFi 6 goes up to 10 Gbps when with Wifi 5 the most we could get was about 7 Gbps.

The advance achieved is thanks, in part, to its 1024-QAM modulation, which allows a greater amount of information to be sent per symbol in a given bandwidth than with previous WiFi protocols. This is especially interesting in scenarios of high-density connections to a WiFi network, which is where the new standard expects to increase by 4 times the average performance per user compared to the previous one.

The interest in the future WiFi 6 is therefore not the maximum speed per device but the overall improvement that users will experience in increasingly common situations and where we want to have many devices connected to the same WiFi network. Even at home. There will also be an improvement in latency, which will be much lower, and of course in security, being prepared to use WPA3.

How does the next WiFi 6 get it you have to look for it in different technologies that release or improves the 802.11 ax standard? Among them, the most relevant is OFDMA, MU-MIMO bidirectional or Color BSS.

The true value of WiFi 6 is in the increase in the efficiency and maintenance of connections even when the network is very congested.

Another important feature of the new WiFi 6 is that, unlike the WiFi 5 or 802.11 ac, the new standard can operate on both the frequency of 2.4 GHz and the 5 GHz. The current WiFi 5 can do it too but in reality, it gets ” taking ” the 2.4 GHz band of the 802.11 a protocol.

Better management of several devices at the same time

At home, it is usual that we have connected to the WiFi network not only smartphones, consoles or televisions, but increasingly, different gadgets and devices that require and need network or Internet connections. From refrigerators to thermostats or loudspeakers with virtual assistants.

ODFMA is a technology that increases the amount of data that can be sent and received simultaneously with WiFi 6

The technology that will significantly improve these conditions of use is OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access). Thanks to it, WiFi 6 networks offer lower latency when there are many devices that want to access the router.

In a simple way, until now, when a router sent information to a device, it made use of the entire bandwidth of the channel, regardless of the type of data or the amount of information that needed to be transmitted. With OFDMA technology, these channels can be subdivided in turn to offer access to different clients or devices, thus achieving that desired lower latency and better efficiency of the WiFi network when there are many devices that want to use it.

Another technology such as MU-MIMO, already used in previous standards, becomes essential in WiFi 6 to achieve consistency in the flow of data to many users. Now it is also bidirectional, counting on Downlink and Uplink of multiple users. The upload mode of multiple users is exclusive of the new standard and did not exist in any of the previous ones.

In environments with the high density of devices and connections, reducing the interferences that make the efficiency of the data flow reduced has also been taken into account in the Wifi standard 6. For those situations, a very curious technique has been used: BSS coloration.

Its operation is very intuitive and the name is not accidental. What happens with this spatial reuse technique is that in a multi red location, different colors are assigned to each network so that their identification is easier. Thus, when the access points detect an 802.11ax frame, they check the color bit of the BSS and make decisions to avoid interference.

Less consumption for connected devices

The third pillar on which WiFi 6 is built is one of the most important since it affects the autonomy of the devices that are going to be connected to the wireless network. The Target Wake Time (TWT) technology is in charge of this improvement.

With WiFi 6, instead of having the devices connecting and shutting down every certain fixed time in search of transmissions from the access point, there is a negotiation to set in advance specific times to access the communication channel, knowing at all times the expected duration of the activities of the network.

With this operation, the devices can be kept in sleep mode (and save energy) until their fixed and negotiated time arrives.

MAC Filtering of a Router: Everything you Need to Know

Although many will find the term familiar, for many it is certain that it is a stranger. However, it is a function that is present in routers and that can help improve security. We are talking about MAC filtering. In this article, we will tell you everything you need to know to use it correctly to improve the fight against possible intruders in the Wi-Fi network of our home.

Starting by defining the function, we could say that it is a function that allows restricting access to the resources of a specific device. A router always comes to mind, but it can also be found in a wireless access point.

MAC Filtering of a Router

We have used the generic word resources. To be more precise, we talk about the wireless network, Internet access or SAMBA server.

The technology has advanced and the devices connected to a Wi-Fi network in the home can be many. This allows the appearance of problems when it comes to efficient management. At the beginning of the access to broadband in our country, the existence of a wireless network was unnecessary. All computers were connected by cable to the modem or router. Smart mobile terminals or tablets were devices that had not yet appeared and the price of laptops caused them to be reserved for a few.

But this has changed as the years have gone by, and in a current home, there is an average of 3 devices connected wirelessly.

Therefore, it becomes a mandatory task to improve the security of our wireless network and protect it as much as possible.

MAC filtering operation modes

The router manufacturers have improved the existing functions in the firmware of the routers. One of the unknown for many is the MAC filtering, which we have already described previously.

With this function, the user can create black or white lists, depending on what the needs are. That is, the number of computers to control. We could say that it has that double focus. If an operation is selected as a blacklist, all identifiers of the equipment entered in this list will be blocked. That is, they can not make use of the router’s resources. However, if it works as a whitelist, all the existing equipment in this list will have the necessary permissions to enjoy the resources of the router or access point.

How blocked/authorized devices are identified

To make this list, the user must use the MAC address that the equipment has. Specifying a little more, you must enter the MAC address of the wireless card that the device is using to connect the resource.

What do I do if my WiFi Network Credentials are Stolen? It is effective?

We could say that, after the credentials configured in the wireless network, it is the second defense barrier, as long as it is configured. The intruder can use the password and enter it. However, by not being on the whitelist or your team belonging to the blacklist, you will not be able to make use of the resources.

Yes, it is true that you have to “lose” a few minutes by entering the addresses. However, from that moment on, everything is advantageous when it comes to security matters.

Configuration of this function

At this point, each router is a world. However, the configuration of this function could be said to be generic. First, the user must choose what the operation will be. If it works like a blacklist or a whitelist. Important to first add the equipment we are using for the configuration if we want it to work as a list of authorized computers. Otherwise, when applying the configuration and our equipment is not present, we will not be able to continue with the process.

Subsequently, everything lies in arming yourself with patience. That is, collect the physical addresses (MAC) of the wireless cards of each of the devices and add them to this list.

Weak points?

At the moment, everything seems advantages. It must be said that this is not an impregnable security measure, although only users with moderately advanced knowledge will get involved in this matter to skip this filtering.

At this point, what is done in these situations is to clone the MAC address of a computer that is connected to that Wi-Fi network. For this, a sniffer is used to capture packets and locate the connected clients, and thus get an “accepted” MAC, which will be cloned to access the wireless network without any problems.

General Settings of the Router

A wireless router is an essential device in most current homes, but in very few they give it the attention required for optimal operation. What this small team does is send the internet modem signal to any pc, mobile, tablet or device that connects.

The process of installation and configuration of the Wi-Fi transmitter is usually done by the company providing the connection or a specialized technician, once they finish the work we connect and forget to check the equipment, which could be causing the problems of slow connection. Luckily, it is very easy to access the administrative area of ​​a router and anyone can do it to make some adjustments that improve its performance.

Luckily, in this article we will teach you how to make some changes and what are the best ways to configure it yourself in a few steps and without advanced computer skills. Read on to get the most out of this device and maximize its performance to enjoy a faster internet.

How do we enter the Web or Router Configuration Panel?

If you have decided to improve the speed of your connection and want to change the settings of your router, you will probably not know where to start. Do not worry, we will explain in detail each step so you can do it at home, so you will not have to pay for technical services and save money.

General Settings of the Router

Each device is different in many factors. Manufacturing companies or brands offer a configuration access service that varies as they see fit. But most share the same access method to enter the router and even the same default data to access the account (If you think about it, this is a risk for you because any stranger who knows it and has access to your WiFi, You could easily enter the administrator interface to configure the operation of the device). That access method, we will explain it below.

Through the IP address

Most operators use the numbers as the IP address to access the administration panel and be able to modify every detail regarding the use and operation.

  • To use these numbers you must open a tab in the browser. It is recommended to do it on a computer for convenience and ease. The device you use must be connected to the WiFi network to be configured. Once you open the internet tab, copy the code and press enter.
  • It will load an access website, in which you will get a box with a message that will ask you to enter the data to access the router configuration. The requested data is the username and password, but if you do not have them or know them, do not be alarmed, as we told you before, many of the providers use the same data for default access, so try to try with:
    • admin / admin
    • admin / 1234
    • 1234 / admin
    • 1234/234
    • Or try leaving one of the fields blank
  • In case none of this works, check the reverse side of the equipment in physics and there you can find out what your credentials are.
  • When you have entered the settings interface, you will see something similar to the following image. All suppliers have a different design, with elements distributed differently, but basically all have a menu on one of their sides to choose different options. From there we can start making modifications to the network to increase security or improve performance. We guide you in all those modifications that you must make in the following points.

How can we improve router security?

The manufacturing companies include security measures in the equipment, but with the increasing cybercrime and the increase of methods to steal data and information from people, these measures fall short, so it is necessary to optimize security by changing some settings.

For this, we can perform several actions within the configuration of the router that we have learned to access, such as the following.

Change the default password

If you have forgotten the password and need to access the panel, it is likely that the fact that this access data is online is useful. But just as you have access to them, some malicious person can also own them and it will only be enough for you to connect to the network for a moment to enter as an administrator and adjust various aspects of the network as it suits you. So, if you continue with the factory password you must change it to avoid being exposed.

Once inside the administrator interface, you must look in the menu for an option that says « Manage «. Most likely, your router, like most, will come in English and you will find the option as “Management“, you must select it. When you open it there will be certain possibilities, among which you have to search for “Access Control”  or “Access Settings” or something similar.

It will be easy to detect it because it will have the username and boxes for the current and new password on the side. You just have to enter the requested data and voila, you’ll be a little more protected from hackers.

Rename the network

By changing the default password you prevent those who connect to the WiFi network from accessing the configuration system. To increase protection, you can change the current name of the network. The names with which Wi-Fi networks are usually identified for the first time have information from the company that provides the service, which can give indications to whoever looks for your information on how to access your administration panel and from there take your data.

To change the name of the network, being on the router panel you must go to the “Wireless” or ” Connections ” section and once there look for the initials “SSID” , when you find them you must select them and put the name you want, Remember to put a completely random name to avoid inducing clues.

Things to keep in mind to configure and modify router Wi-Fi

The router administrator panel is a complete system that displays various modification and adjustment options for the user. The range of possibilities we have to alter the predefined operation of the network is very wide. There are alternatives that allow greater securityoptimized speed and some others that serve to improve the experience when playing video games and make it much easier.

Some things that we can consider and adjust within this panel are:

Frequency types

There are regulations on the use of networks internationally. These regulations specify the frequency ranges at which a device can emit its signals. The frequencies at which all internet devices operate are 2.4 GHz, 3.6 GHz and 5 GHz.

Each team according to its technology operates at one or the other. Similarly, network routers depending on the version have the ability to accept the 5GHz frequency, if so, we can choose in the panel the frequency we want to use. Of course, before choosing, we must verify that all devices support it. Choosing the highest frequency ensures a more stable connection, faster and with greater coverage.

Limit access to certain computers or MAC Filtering

The WiFi sender is the intermediary between the modem and the devices that connect to the network. In MAC computers you can establish a filter so that only those devices that are recognized by it can be connected to the signal. This way you make sure that the only ones who can enjoy your Internet are those who have your permission.

To activate MAC filtering that all current routers have, simply look in the configuration panel for the section marked “Wireless” or ” Connections ” and in it some option such as ” Mac Filter / Mac Filtering ” or ” Access Limit / Limit of access «. Within it, you can activate the use of this tool and at once mark the known devices according to their IP addresses (To know the IP of your mobile and allow access, take it and enter Settings).

What is the DHCP server and how to configure it optimally?

Each time a device connects to a WiFi network, it provides you with the necessary elements to surf the internet, among them is an IP address. All routers bring by default a DHCP server that assigns addresses according to specific ranges to each network, that is, the IP address of the device will change with each connection.

If we go to the ” Advanced Settings ” section in the settings panel, we can activate an option to open the router ports and assign a fixed IP address to each device. So every time you connect you will have the same address.

And what is an UPnP server for?

The UPnP server is included in some router by default, in others, it must be installed or activated. The functionality of this is to serve as a communications facilitator. Redirect traffic, opening or closing connections as required, to perform tasks on the Network.

In most of the router configuration panels, the UPnP is in the section of and it is enough to select a box to activate it and stop worrying about problems with the network ports.

 DMZ or Demilitarized Zone

The demilitarized zone or DMZ is an option that only some routers have the privilege of owning. This configuration became popular among gamers, since what it does is open all the ports of the network of an IP, leaving the connection without any restrictions or blockages.

It is not recommended to activate it for computers or mobiles because it could put the computer at risk by exposing it to threats, viruses or internet malware.

The importance of updating the Firmware

The firmware is what allows much of the internet functions, it is a kind of router operating system. Like browsers and other elements, the firmware is constantly updated to solve problems in each version, as well as add functions, optimize the connection or repair errors.

In the router administration interface, you will find a specific section for Firmware where you can see if there are updates available and although not all companies allow you to download the update from the configuration.

Configure a parental control

After connecting your router, from the configuration, you can activate parental control, ideal for parents who want to keep their children under control. Depending on the brand, each team has different control options, but in general, you can block access to various websites and restrict pages that use certain vocabulary.

Although it is designed to prevent children from entering improper websites, you can also use it to prevent certain portals from opening up in which they may be full of malware that affects your equipment.

Check router events and their status

The router stores every movement that is made when a connection is established, entering this detailed record is possible in the configuration panel, where you can check unauthorized access attempts, blocked web access, DHCP addresses, problems connection , and you can also see the speed measurement of the network to verify that it is the one offered by the provider.

Open ports

Opening the router ports has become a very popular activity, especially when you want a specific game or application to work more efficiently. The ports are used to establish connections between applications and servers, one of the most famous a few years ago was the eMule servers. Each application uses a specific port and to improve the operation these ports must be opened.

So these are the Basic general Settings of a Router for better performance and speed.

How to login to a router through Internet Explorer

A router is basically a splitter of an Ethernet cable. Routers are the most used to connect several computers to the Internet through the same connection. They can also be used to configure a local network, with or without an Internet connection. Each router comes with some basic software, called firmware, that controls the router’s configuration. Access to this software is like access to a web page. You need to know your router address and login credentials.

Login to Router using Internet Explorer

  1. Open Internet Explorer
  2. Type “http: //”, then the router’s IP address. Linksys and 3Com routers use “” as the IP address. D-Link and Netgear routers use “” as the IP address. Microsoft Broadband routers use ”″ as the IP address. Check the router manual if none of these is your address.
  3. Press the “Enter” button.
  4. Type “admin” in the Username box and “admin” in the password box if you use a 3Com, Linksys or Microsoft Broadband router. For Netgear routers, use “password” as the password and for D-Link, leave the password box blank. Check the router manual if necessary to find 192.168.l.l default login credentials.
  5. Press the “Enter” button to log in to the router.


  • Many (but not all) routers use as the router address. Check the router owner’s manual for the correct IP address, administrator username and password.

Items you will need

  • Computer with a wired network adapter
  • Ethernet cable (Category 5, 5e or 6)
  • Wireless router
  • Router owner’s manual

ASUS router login guide

Step 1: Connect your ASUS router to a PC / laptop with an RJ45 Ethernet cable. Make sure the RJ45 cable is working.

Step 2: Once the connection is made, open a browser on your computer and type Asus Router Default IP Address.

Step 3: You will be asked for username and password. Enter the details.

Step 4: This will open the router administration page. You can now change or modify the router settings on your own. (Reset Factory Settings of Asus router)

D-Link / TP-Link Router login Configuration

TP-Link routers are the most commonly used routers for home networks since they are very easy to configure and manage. Follow these steps to connect and configure TP-link paths on Windows and Mac PC.

Step 1: Connect the PC and your TP-Link router with an Ethernet cable.

Step 2: In the browser URL bar, type ” ” or ” ” and press Enter.

Step 3: Enter your username and password. (admin-admin or admin-password) If you have not changed it or if it is new, look for it on the Router.

Step 4: Once done. You will see a TP-link welcome page. Now change or modify the settings you want to change.

How to log in and modify Netgear Router Configuration

In this Netgear router login guide, we show you how to log in to your router and the options you need to adjust to ensure you get the fastest and safest possible wireless Internet speeds.
Maybe you bought your Netgear router, set it up and have had no reason to return to the router configuration or configuration menus since then. And now you need to change again to change something, you may have kept the same broadband provider for a long time and finally decided to switch to a better business, but you have completely forgotten how to log in to the Netgear device.

Primary Netgear router login method

First, you must open your favorite web browser (no matter what browser, anyone will do it well). Then simply type the following in the address bar (URL) of your browser and press Enter: http://www.routerlogin.net

Alternatively, you can also write: http://www.routerlogin.com

You should then see the login window of the router, which asks for your username and password. If so, go to step 3. If the router login window does not appear, continue with step 2, which is an alternative method of login.

Alternative login method of the Netgear router (over IP)

Alternatively, you can enter the IP address of your Netgear router in the browser’s URL bar.

The IP address is a four-digit number, with dots between each number, and you may think it is a digital address that shows where your router is located on the local network. Usually, it will be something like 192.168.xxx.xxx where those last two numbers (xxx) may differ slightly.

Sign in to Gateway – 192.168.l.l Login Manual

This IP address may be written in the instruction booklet of your router somewhere, but if not, you can easily find it using your PC.

In Windows 10, go to the search box (right next to the Start button), type ‘C’, and suggestions that start with the letter ‘C’ will appear above: click on Command Prompt. (In earlier versions of Windows, click Start, click the search field, or the magnifying glass icon, type CMD and click Command Prompt).

A window will appear: simply type the following into that window (known as the command line) and press Enter: ipconfig

A series of numbers will appear below. Make a note of the one labeled as Default Gateway (usually found at the bottom).

Simply type this number exactly as it is written (including the dots between the numbers) in the address bar of your browser, and it will be in golden color.

Enter user credentials

In the login window of the Netgear router, which asks for your username and password, enter your credentials, then click on ‘Login’, and that’s it. You are already logged in to your Netgear router.

You can now go to the (optional) section at the end of this article on the common settings to take a look once you are inside the Netgear router menus.

There is a possible obstacle here, and that is if you forgot your username or password. You modified them from the default values, right, or at least the password?

Any Router : Default Username and Passwords

Those default values ​​are username ‘admin’ and the password is ‘password’ (these default values ​​are written at the bottom of your router somewhere), but since they are so insecure (and known to anyone), you should always change them.

However, if you are not sure what your password details are, you can also try these default values ​​just in case. Just make sure to change them later. If it fails, you must perform a password recovery.

Password recovery

In the login window of the Netgear router requesting your username and password, click Cancel. Now, if you have previously enabled password recovery, the Router Password Recovery screen will appear.

You must complete the serial number of your router (written somewhere on the device, probably at the bottom) and answer some security questions. Once this is done, the password will be displayed for you to see.

If you did not enable password recovery, or if you forgot the answers to security questions, we fear you are not lucky. You should simply start from scratch by performing a factory reset on your Netgear router, which will reset the username and password to the default values ​​(as explained above).

To perform a factory reset, make sure that the router is turned on and then look for the reset button (it is almost certain that it is on the back of the device). This is a small hole in which you have to insert a paper clip and press it for seven seconds (maybe a few more just in case).

The router will restart, but keep in mind that you have lost all your settings (you must configure the device again from scratch).

Netgear router login through the mobile application

Install the Netgear application

Locate the Nighthawk application (which has replaced the old Genie application, so you should get rid of it and update it if you already ran Genie) in the Apple App Store or Google Play.

Download it and install it on your phone or tablet. Once installed, run the application and accept the terms and conditions. You must also decide whether to allow the application to access the location services of your device (which allows the application to automatically connect your phone to your network if you change the name of the network).

Orbi router owners must use the Orbi application, of course, which is used when configuring the mesh network system for the first time.

Login or create a Netgear account

The next step is to log into your Netgear account: if you already have an account, press the ‘Log in’ button, enter your email address and password, then press ‘Log in’.

Otherwise, press ‘Create account’ and provide the appropriate details (name, email, password).

You will then be asked if you need to install a new router; Unless you are configuring your router for the first time, you must select ‘No’.

Log in to the router

You will now be asked to log in with your administrator credentials for the router. As is the case when logging in from a PC, you will need the username and password of your router (not your Netgear account, which is something completely separate). Enter these details and press Sign in, and that’s it: you are signed in to your Netgear router.

If you have forgotten your password, there is a link presented in a Netgear support article that explains what to do next, but you can also see the help tips in steps 3 and 4 of the instructions above to log in to your Netgear router from a PC, since you will be following the same procedure.

Common settings

Well, then you have successfully logged into your Netgear router and you have solved what you need to order. While you are here, it might be useful to outline some commonly used options that you can see and potentially modify (we also have some useful tips on why it might be useful to do so too).

Here, we are using a Nighthawk XR700 router running DumaOS, and although the interface for your particular Netgear router model may seem different, the main options must be the same or very similar, in general terms.

If you are logged in to your router from the Nighthawk smartphone application, the user interface will be very different, but the configuration uses the same (or similar) names. However, keep in mind that there is an exception where you cannot access QoS from the mobile application.

Device administrator

This can also be called Connected Devices and shows a visual illustration (or a simple list) of all the devices connected to your router and home network. It can be interesting to see exactly how many devices your family uses, but perhaps most importantly, it could also detect devices that should not be connected to your network. If you click on any particular device, there is an option to block it, if necessary.


QoS means Quality of service, and this allows you to prioritize different devices in terms of the bandwidth (download or upload) they get. For example, if you want your console to work better, for example, by downloading a large game, or perhaps online games, simply give this device a greater part of the bandwidth.

In DumaOS, you can simply click and drag any of the percentage numbers for any device out to give you proportionally more bandwidth (or even 100% of bandwidth). However, remember that what you are giving to a particular device is taking away from others. By default, everything is balanced equally between each piece of hardware, and you can click Reset Distribution to return to this default image.

Guest Network

As the name implies, this is a secondary network that you can configure on your router that the people you visit can use, without having to let them get lost in your main home network. Another potential application is that you could use the guest network for your smart home devices, which generally have less stringent security levels than other hardware, so if they are affected by potential vulnerabilities, you can keep them away from your PCs and Other critical devices. Devices in your main network.

To configure it, simply go to Guest Network (Guest Wi-Fi in the smartphone application) through the main menu (although in DumaOS, you will find this option in Settings> Settings> Guest network). Simply click on Enable the guest network to do that (which can be a 2.5GHz or 5GHz Wi-Fi network), change the network name if you wish and choose WPA2 [AES] for security (or the option to WPA2 present).